The knee is one of the largest joints in the body. The knee joins the shin bone to the thigh bone. Tendons hook the bones of the knee to the muscles of the leg, that help in the movement of the knee joint. Ligaments join the bones of the knee and contribute cohesion to the knee. Knee pain is common due to wear and tear of regular life activities and from sports injuries, etc. Tendons, ligaments, muscles, cartilage and bones help the knee to accomplish its functions and any injury or disease to these parts can cause relentless knee pain.
Conditions that cause knee pain:
Partially dislocated knee-cap: In this condition the knee-cap shifts from its normal position and causes swelling and pain.
Osgood-Schlatter disease: This is common in athletes. It causes warmth and swelling over the bony bounce below the knee.
Iliotibial band syndrome: This is an exacerbated injury to the iliotibial band of tissue that runs from the hip to shin. This causes pain in the knee.
Bleeding in the joint: This condition is also called haemarthrosis. It upsets surrounding blood vessels of the knee ligament and causes swelling, bruising, stiffness and warmth in the knee.
Bone chips: A knee injury can fissure the fragments of cartilage or bone sometimes. These crippled pieces can stick in the joints and solidify that may result in swelling and pain.
Tendonitis: Tendons are the bands of tissue that join muscles and bones. Tendonitis is an overuse injury that causes swelling of tendons.
Osteoarthritis: This is a deteriorating joint disease. It may cause knee pain that is normal during the day but worse in the morning. Usually, it evolves at the previous injury site. Some other types of arthritis including rheumatoid arthritis, lupus and gout can also cause stiffness, swelling and pain in the knee.
Osteochondritis: In this condition, a piece of knee cartilage or bone is deprived of blood supply and dies inside the knee joint. It causes pain in the knee and also diminishes knee movement.
Infection: Any infection in the joint, skin, bursa or bone can cause knee pain and reduce the knee movement.
ACL injury: The Anterior Cruciate Ligament is commonly torn during sports activities, which involves sudden direction changes including volleyball, tennis, soccer, and basketball.
Torn meniscus: Meniscus plays the role of the shock absorber. It is positioned between the thighbone and shinbone. It may rip by quick twisting of the knee while holding weight on it.
Fractures: Knee bones can get cracked or broken during falls or motor vehicle accidents. Depleted bones can also maintain knee fractures.
Foot or hip pain: During hip or foot pain conditions, you may alter the way you walk to prevent this pain in the joints. This can place more stress on your knee joint which may result in a painful knee.
Septic arthritis: This condition is also called infectious arthritis. An infected knee joint can lead to swelling, pain and fever.
Post-traumatic arthritis: This occurs after a severe knee joint injury, including ligament tears and bone fractures. Over time these injuries can destroy the knee cartilage and cause swelling, stiffness and pain in the knee.
Bursitis: Bursa is a sac-like structure holding a small amount of fluid placed under the knee joint skin, which prevents friction. Kneeling, repeated bending and overuse can irritate the bursa and lead to swelling and pain.